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Definitions and terms used in these guidelines

Definitions and terms used in these guidelines Accommodation The dog’s housing, where it spends most of its time. Animal Welfare The physical and mental state of an animal in relation to the conditions in which it lives and dies (OIE 2019). Best Practice Evidence-based practices that demonstrate optimised animal welfare. Bitch An entire (intact) female dog used for breeding. Pedigree bitches are likely to be registered with the governing Kennel Club. Breeding Refers to either planned or unplanned breeding (mating and production of offspring), of pedigree and non-pedigree dogs. Dog Canis familiaris. Domesticated member of the family Canidae (order Carnivora). Coefficient of Inbreeding A measure of the degree of inbreeding – how closely related the parents are. Compassion Described as ‘the emotion a person experiences when they feel concern for another’s suffering coupled with a desire to alleviate their suffering and enhance their welfare’ (Goetz et al 2010). Competent Defined as ‘having the necessary ability, knowledge and skill to do something successfully’ (Oxford Dictionary of English 2003). Competent Authority The central authority of a member state competent to carry out controls on breeding or any authority to which it has delegated that competence. Conformation/ Extreme conformation The shape and structure of the body. Extremes of conformation, defined ‘as when an animal’s body shape, structure, or appearance has the potential to result in negative impacts on their health and welfare’ (British Veterinary Association 2018, p1). Domestic Home Environment A household where both the dog and its’ owner/keeper live. Duty of Care A moral or legal obligation to ensure the safety and well-being of others (people or animals). Dystocia Difficulty giving birth. Good Practice Practices that ensure compliance with requirements of legislation or regulations designed to protect the animals’ welfare. Hybrid The offspring of two different species or sub-species (e.g. a wolf-dog is a hybrid generated by the interbreeding of a domestic dog and a wild canid). Inbreeding Breeding from closely related dogs such as brother and sister, mother and son or father and daughter, grandfather, and granddaughter. Lactation Milk production from the mammary glands. Non-pedigree dog A dog or puppy of no specific breed. Pedigree dog A dog or puppy bred specifically to exhibit particular physical characteristics, often whose parents are specific breeds and whose ancestry is documented in a ‘pedigree’ document, registered with a recognised club/society. Pica Broadly characterised as chewing, sucking or ingesting non-nutritive items. Popular Sire Effect Refers to the widespread use of a particular male to sire many litters leading to reduced genetic diversity in a breed and increasing the probability of deleterious inherited disorders (Farrell et al 2015). Quality of Life Simply defined as ‘an individual’s satisfaction with its welfare’ (Belshaw 2017, p9). Defined operationally as ‘an individual’s satisfaction with its physical and psychological health, its physical